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Periodontology (Tooth Gum Diseases)

Periodontology is the main branch of dentistry engaging in health and maintenance of tooth gums and surrounding tissues. The basis of the oral health is a good oral hygiene.

Various tooth gum problems arise in cases where oral hygiene is not sufficient. 70% of missing teeth in adults arises out of periodontal diseases. When such diseases are diagnosed in early period, they may be easily and successfully treated. Prevention or treatment of tooth gum diseases results in other benefits such as protection of natural teeth, easier chewing, and better digestion.

The main reason of tooth gum diseases is failure to regularly remove the bacterial plaque. Bacterial plaque starts to accumulate and causes problems such as tartar, cavity, and bad breath. If bacterial plaque is not removed, minerals in saliva precipitate and tartar is formed. Tartar applies pressure to tooth gum and causes problems such as swelling, redness, bleeding, and odor.Tartar accumulated in the area for long time causes recession and destruction of bone tissue supporting the tooth.

Tooth gum diseases may be prevented without reaching advanced level by regular tartar cleaning and dentist examination once in 6 months.

What is Curettage?

In cases where tooth gum diseases are progressed, your dentist intervenes in root level by descending under the tooth gum for a deeper cleaning.The purpose of this treatment is to ensure adhesion of tooth gum to the root surface.

What Causes to Tooth Gum Diseases?

The main reason of tooth gum diseases is a adhesive transparent plate holding onto the tooth called bacterial plaque. You can notice the plaque by scratching your tooth by your nail. There are 200 - 500 million bacteria in one milligram of plaque. On the other hand, the following factors affect your tooth gum health.

GENETIC FACTORS There is a genetic predisposition with the rate of 30% according to the researches conducted. Also, bad oral care increases development of tooth gum diseases by 6 times. If there is a person having a tooth gum problem in your family, get examined by a periodontist.

SMOKING Smoking causes many important health problems such as cancer and lung and heart diseases as we all know. Except all, it is very harmful for intraoral mucosa and tooth gums. It causes softening of tooth gums and development of gingival diseases.

DRUG USE Oral contraceptive pills, antidepressants, and heart drugs affects your oral health. Thus, if you use one of these drugs, warn your dentist and pay utmost attention to your oral health.

HORMONAL CHANGES In periods in which hormonal changes are intense such as pregnancy, puberty, menopauses, and menstruation, you must pay special attention to your oral health.  Your tooth gums become more sensitive in these periods. Predisposition to tooth gum diseases increases.

STRESS Besides it is the cause of many diseases such as hypertension and cancer, it is among the risk factors of tooth gum diseases. Researches have shown that stress hardens the fight of body against infection including periodontal diseases.

GRINDING OR CLENCHING OF THE TEETH It results in periodontal tissue destruction by causing decrease in strength between the tooth and tooth gum. Another reason for gingival recession is clenching of the teeth. This clenching must be stopped by wearing night plate.

MALNUTRITION It results in weakening in immune system of the body and accordingly, hardening in fight against infections including periodontal infections.

DIABETES Diabetic patients are in the high-risk group in terms of periodontal (tooth gum) infection. They must get examined by a periodontolog and must pay special attention to their oral health.

POORLY MADE CROWN BRIDGE AND FILLING Fillings, crowns, and bridges applying pressure on the tooth gum and which are overabundant cause problems in tooth gums.


Appearance of tooth gum of frontal incisors when speaking or smiling causes an unpleasant look.Lip line curves in parallel with the area in which canine teeth meet with tooth gum. If this curve starts from an upper point, it is called "high lip line". In its treatment, gingivectomy application is performed on tooth gum. Although it is a very simple procedure, you can notice that your teeth aesthetic changes at once. With this operation, you tooth gums shall not present a bad look when you smile.

Who Can Have Gingivectomy?

Even though teeth are not short, tooth gum causes that length of teeth looks shorter in some patients. In such conditions, gingivectomy is applied. It may be applied in persons in which tooth gums are not symmetrical and in order to lengthen the teeth.

Oral, Dental, and Maxillofacial Surgery

It is the branch of dentistry in which operations in relation to cystic or tumoral pathologies in both hard tissues and soft tissues in oral, dental, and maxillofacial tissues, tooth and jaw fractures, extraction or maintenance of decayed and impacted teeth, extraction of infectious tooth roots, and nasal cavity.  

Extraction of Wisdom Tooth and Impacted Tooth 

Wisdom teeth are the third biggest molars which erupt lastly. Those teeth generally erupt between the ages of 16 and 25. However, for some reasons (lack of space in jaw, systemic diseases, radiation therapy, milk teeth retention, lip/plate cleft etc.), those teeth may be impacted.

 Symptoms of Tooth Gum Disease:

The first and most important symptom of gingival diseases is gingival bleeding. Healthy tooth gum does not bleed.

• If there is swelling, redness etc. in tooth gums,
• If there are recessions in tooth gums and sensitivities on root surfaces which become apparent,
• If there are tooth gum tartars or black areas depending on tartars between teeth,
• If there is flix between the tooth and tooth gum,
• If there is shaking, elongation, or spacing between teeth,
• If there is a permanent odor and bad taste in the mouth, it is required to get examined by a dentist without losing time.